Saturday, May 23, 2020

Movie Analysis The Hand Essay - 1860 Words

Play, a four letter word that encompases so many ideas. There are several different forms for play accessible to us all and not prohibited by your age. Do you want to build a snowman? The question brought to us by the Disney movie, Frozen. This question brings about a mental image, as well as offers an invitation to participate in object play. Frank Wilson wrote a book titled, The Hand, within the pages he shares that the more people are able to use their hands to learn, the stronger their problem solving skills become. Another form of play is body play, â€Å"the spontaneous desire to get ourselves out of gravity† (Brown 2008). Have you ever just needed to move, because you have sat for too long? Try standing up in your office, or bathroom stall if you want to not be a distraction to others around you, stand up and jump up and down five times and see how you feel. This movement will get the blood flowing again, breaking up the lethargy of your day. By now, we have all watched the video clip of the polar bear and the husky playing together in free rough and tumble play. As a parent, I have has to stand back and just watch my two oldest sons play, to decipher if they were playing or fighting. When two children or animals are in this state of play, you will notice fluid motions, there is no anger or tempers flaring. Stuart Brown shares that preschool children need to be able to; â€Å"dive, whistle, hit, scream, be chaotic and developed through a lot of emotional regulation† (BrownShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of The Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Poster783 Words   |  4 Pages Design Analysis Essay BCM 110 In this essay I am going to analyse the movie poster for the film ‘Pirates of the Caribbean : The Curse of the Black Pearl’ . This film was released in 2003 directed by Gore Verbinski and it was a huge Box-Office hit and had great reviews . It also made Johnny Depp the superstar he is now and it stars other actors such as Orlando Bloom and Keira Knightley . The genre of the film is an action adventure film with lots of other elements in it . Read MoreFilm Analysis Of Forrest Gump1362 Words   |  6 Pagesof analyzation such as the Freudian, Jungian, and Rankian methods of analysis. In this essay, I will analyze the 1994 American film Forrest Gump by using three methods of analysis. In overview, the movie Forrest Gump tells a tale of a young Georgia country boy by the name of Forrest Gump. Forrest can be characterized as a special kid who had to wear leg braces because of his inability to walk straight. In addition, in the movie Forrest is seen having a low IQ when compared to other kids his age.Read MoreV for Vendetta: The Movie and the Book948 Words   |  4 Pagesthe other hand, it is interesting, as well, to look for disadvantages of modern society and try to improve them. People were always striving to create a better world, even with words and images. In the past several years, there have been many movies devoted to the issue of future alternative reality. This essay is devoted to one of the alternative reality movies. V for Vendetta was shot in 2006. However, not many people know that in 1982, there was a graphic book V for Vendetta. The movie was basedRead MoreAnalysis of Pirates of the Caribbean: the Curse of the Black Pearl1051 Words   |  5 PagesAnalysis of Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Michelle Neitzel February 8, 2010 Analysis of Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is a 2003 film, which is an entertaining, swashbuckling movie produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. This Walt Disney movie is based on the famous Disneyland and Disney World ride adventure called, of course, â€Å"Pirates of the Caribbean†. Unlike the fun-filled ride at the DisneyRead MoreAnalysis Of A Trailer Of A Movie Or Advertisement From A Systemic Functional Analysis1344 Words   |  6 PagesAn analysis of a trailer of a movie or advertisement from a systemic functional analysis can be used to identify the semiotic techniques or resources that are the aspects for gender stereotypes. Semiotic resources such as perspective angle, gaze, and the plane of composition are used to investigate the stereotype implications of masculine and feminist. These same resources are applicable to advertisements (Terence).This paper discusses the gender semiotic facts in filming based on a review of FastRead MoreCompetition in the Movie Re ntal Industry: Netflix and Redbox1710 Words   |  7 PagesM E M O R A N D U M DATE: Friday, February 22, 2013 SUBJ: A Look at the Competition Within the Movie Rental Industry EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Analysis: The competitive forces in the movie rental industry are quite strong, as I will explain through the five forces model. There are a vast amount of substitutes for watching a movie. You can go to a play, sporting event, concert, out the lake/beach, go for a run, watch regular television, go shopping; I could go on and on. Also, torrenting or piratingRead MoreFilm Analysis : Finding Forrester1447 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Henry once said, The eyes shout what the lips fear to say. In the movie Finding Forrester, the director, Gus Van Sant, chose to use eyes as a motif. Throughout the analysis of eyes, one can conclude that the director embedded this element into the movie in order to reveal the characters’ inner emotions and to reveal character development. Throughout the course of the movie there are several instances in which eyes and eye contact reveal affection and admiration. For example, when JamalRead MoreValue Chain Analysis1651 Words   |  7 Pagesorganization should adopt the various application of information technology. This will put the organization at the forefront in terms of innovation as well as give the organization a competitive advantage (Hitt amp; Robert, 2011, p.10). Value chain analysis is a model that was developed by Michael Porter to help an organization develop a strategy for its organization. Michael porter suggested that organization activities can be grouped into two major categories which include the following; primary andRead MoreRobert Iger Knew That For Disney To Be Successful, The1223 Words   |  5 Pagesthat was rapidly supplanting hand-drawn animation. The CEO is reflecting on the next steps to be taken by Disney. The available options include negotiating a new distribution deal with Pixar or other animation studios, acquire Pixar, or to reengineer Disney Animation to better compete with Pixar. Analysis: A SWOT analysis is conducted to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of Walt Disney Company and Pixar Inc., and understand the opportunities and threats in the movie industry. The main strengthRead MoreEssay on Netflix Case Study1443 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Model amp; Strategy 1. How strong are the competitive forces in the movie rental marketplace? Do five-forces analysis to support your answer. Firms in Other Industries Offering Substitute Products There is a small amount of possibilities for substitutes. The only substitutes would be illegally obtaining the movies by downloading or streaming, purchasing  ³bootleg ´ DVD ¶s, or waiting until the movie is aired on public or cable TV stations. Suppliers of Raw Materials, Parts, Components

Monday, May 18, 2020

Essay on Importance of Setting in Shakespeares The Tempest

Importance of Setting in The Tempest The island of magic and mystery that Shakespeare creates in The Tempest is an extraordinary symbol of both the political and social realities of his contemporary society, and of the potential for a reformed New World. Shakespeare’s island is a creation which allows the juxtaposition of real and idealised worlds, and shows his audience both what they and what they ought to be. The seventeenth century was a time of ideological upheaval in Europe, with Medieval ideas of a hierarchical and ordered society being challenged by Renaissance thinkers. For the dynastic powers, including England under Elizabeth I, colonialism was an important opportunity to realise territorial ambition and prove religious†¦show more content†¦Antonio is morose and cynical, remarking that it is as if the island â€Å"’twere perfumed by a fen† and has everything â€Å"save means to live†. The most interesting reaction is from Gonzalo, whose comic vision of an impractical but i deal commonwealth is the first utopian dream in the play: â€Å"I’ the commonwealth I would by contraries Execute all things; for no kind of traffic Would I admit†¦ No occupation, all men idle, all, And women too, but innocent and pure; No sovereignty-â€Å" Gonzalo delivers this speech to provide comic relief to his audience, but it has much greater significance. His optimistic attitude, â€Å"you have cause, so have we all, of joy† and vision parallels the excitement of the discovery of a New World in the seventeenth century. Additionally, the island is the perfect setting for Shakespeare to present man as a zealous political animal, free of the faà §ade and superficiality of ordinary society. Antonio and Sebastian plot almost immediately to murder Antonio, considering political gain despite the predicament in which they find themselves. Additionally, Stephano, Trincullo and even Caliban have their own political plot – to murder Prospero. Stephano remarks â€Å"this will prove a brave kingdom to me†, and Caliban tells of his dreams of heavenly riches: â€Å"the isle is full of noises, Sounds, and sweet airs, that delight and hurt not†¦ and then, in dreaming, The clouds methought would open, and show riches Ready to drop uponShow MoreRelatedThe Adaptation of The Tempest by William Shakespeare to the Film Prosperos Books531 Words   |  3 PagesThe Adaptation of The Tempest by William Shakespeare to the Film Prosperos Books When adapting a play for the screen, a director’s primary responsibility is to visualize an enactment that remains true to the original work’s perception. In addition to this task, the director must also build upon the foundations laid by the script; without this goal, (s)he would have no reason to have undertaken the project in the first place. Providing an innovative reading of a well-known play is undoubtedlyRead More Essay on the Setting in Shakespeares The Tempest1072 Words   |  5 PagesImportance of Setting in The Tempest   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeare’s enchanted island in The Tempest is a restorative pastoral setting, a place where ‘no man was his own’ and a place that offers endless possibilities to the people that arrive on it’s shores. Although the actual location of the island is not known, the worlds of Seneca aptly describe it’s significance to the play – it represents the ‘bounds of things, the remotest shores of the world’. On the boundary of reality, the island partakes of bothRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Tragicomedy The Tempest1935 Words   |  8 PagesLiterary texts rarely stand alone, frequently including elements from other influences. William Shakespeare’s tragicomedy The Tempest (c:1611) is a play that uses intertextuality to enhance ideas about natural order. Banished to an island, Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan, conjures up a tempest that brings him his usurping brother, Antonio in an attempt to restore his Dukedom. The play’s amalgamation of tragicomedy and the pastoral genre allows Shakespeare to warn his audience about unbalanceRead More The Dictatorial Prospero of Shakespeares The Tempest Essay1504 Words   |  7 PagesThe Dictatorial Prospero of The Tempest      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Motivation often propels people to achieve high goals. Sometimes, however, motivation is too strong a tool and can manifest into selfish desires. The exploitation of the weak invariably results from the strong abusing their power, especially in a political setting. In William Shakespeares ‘The Tempest’, Prospero is displayed as a tyrannical character who spawns a disastrous storm as part of a grand scheme to regain his title of Duke of Milan.Read MoreThe Theme of Julius Caesar Essay2961 Words   |  12 PagesWilliam Shakespeare was one of the most influential playwrights, is known today for his plays such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, A Midsummer Nights Dream and many other interesting and different plays. We in the 21st century enjoy Shakespeare’s plays for a variety of reasons. His plays have different themes like love, ambition, pride, friendship, supernatural, etc. His language is rich and full of imagery. Many of his famous quotes are used even till today such as ToRead MoreEssay about Importance of Environment in Shakespeares The Tempest1968 Words   |  8 PagesImportance of Environment in The Tempest   Ã‚   The island is full of noises; Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight,† says Caliban. The responses which the characters in The Tempest offer to their immediate surroundings reveal much about their individual traits, at the same time they allow the audience glimpses of Prosperos island as different parts of the island are isolated in the play. The island itself and the sea that surrounds it may be seen as encompassing elemental nature and throughoutRead MoreEssay on The Moor in the Works of William Shakespeare4150 Words   |  17 PagesThe Sources and Representations of the Moor in the Works of Shakespeare      Ã‚  Ã‚   One theme consistently reemployed throughout Shakespeares plays is that of the Other. The Other is usually characterized as a character that is somehow separated, stigmatized, or noted as being different from the mainstream ideal. For the Elizabethan England of Shakespeares time, it may have been a self-defensive maneuver against the encroachment of something which threatened too close to home (Bartels 450). BryantRead MoreEssay on William Shakespeares The Tempest2363 Words   |  10 PagesWilliam Shakespeares The Tempest Generally acknowledged as one of Shakespeares final plays, The Tempest may be described as a romantic tragi-comedy - where love and contentment prosper despite the threatening presence of evil forces. However, beyond the almost fairy-tale like exterior lies a seemingly direct approach to a greatly topical debate at the time. This was the supposed contrast between civilised and uncivilised persons, brought to the fore as a resultRead More Uncovering Worth Unknown: The Constancy of Love in Sonnet 1162370 Words   |  10 Pagesfamous for his plays and for his sonnets. These sonnets discuss everything from the importance of children to the troubles of rival poets, and have even been divided into two distinct subgroups—those of the â€Å"Fair Youth† and those of the â€Å"Dark Lady†Ã¢â‚¬â€because of the differences between the two. However, a common theme that runs throughout nearly all of them is that of love. Illustrating and exemplifying love, Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116 provides a classic example of this theme, as Shakespeare both definesRead MoreFemale Sexuality in Shakespeare4830 Words   |  20 Pagesactivities.† (Valerie Traub, â€Å"Gender and Sexuality in Shakespeare† p129)  Margreta de Grazia claimed â€Å"nothing threatens a patriarchal and hierarchic social formation more than a promiscuous womb,† (Margreta de Grazia, †Å"The Scandal of Shakespeare’s Sonnets,† in Shakespeare’s Sonnets: Critical Essays,p106)   and pivotally, both plays examine the supposed risk of unrestrained female desire. Also, the sexual relationships existing in the  Sonnets  appear to subvert  Ã‚  stereotypical gender ideas founded in the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Language of Advertising - 20371 Words

The Peculiarities of Advertising Language Moscow - 2010 Summary The peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this graduation paper. At the beginning, in the first chapter is given a general definition of advertising language, its history. The second chapter is types of advertising (consumer advertising, media of consumer advertising). In the third chapter we consider slogans, logos, types with tone and some thoughts of†¦show more content†¦Classification of language styles†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.59 1. Belles-Letters Style†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦60 2. Publicist Style†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.60 3. Newspaper Style†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.60 4. Scientific Prose Style†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦60 5. The style of official documents†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦60 Chapter XI. Psychology and Advertising†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.62 1. Social Psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.62 1.1. Advertising: appealing to fun and pleasure†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦64 1.2. Advertising: appealing to vanities and egos†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..66 2. Advertising and hypnosis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.67 3. Emphasizing particular properties†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦70 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦72 List of sources†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...75 Supplement 1†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦77 Supplement 2†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦78 Supplement 3†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦79 INTRODUCTION This graduation paper is devoted to the investigation of peculiarities of advertising language. However, the number of works devoted to the analysis of advertising language, is rather significant, though we witness advertising English is developing very fast. The reason is that advertising is very popular nowadays and a lot of people want to know aboutShow MoreRelatedThe Language Of Persuasion, Advertising, And Advertising1537 Words   |  7 PagesKnown as the language of persuasion, advertisements have been speaking to us consumers for as long as anyone can remember. We are constantly being bombarded by big corporations to buy their products and services. No medium is left untouched; television, social media, radio, billboards, and even other people are used as vehicles for messages a given company is trying to reinforce. With the advent of technology, it has become increasingly difficult for companies to stand out to consumers in an impactfulRead MoreLanguage of Advertising and Communication Via Advertising16638 Words   |  67 PagesLanguage of Advertising and Communication via Advertising Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1. Concept of advertising as an act of communication 7 1.1. Definition of Advertising 7 1.2. Communication and Advertising 8 1.3. Functions of Advertising 12 1.4. Image Advertising 14 1.5. Advertising Text and Slogan 15 1.6. Conclusion 16 Chapter 2. Language of advertising 18 2.1. General CharacteristicsRead MoreLanguage of Advertising and Communication Via Advertising16651 Words   |  67 PagesLanguage of Advertising and Communication via Advertising Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1. Concept of advertising as an act of communication 7 1.1. Definition of Advertising 7 1.2. Communication and Advertising 8 1.3. Functions of Advertising 12 1.4. Image Advertising 14 1.5. Advertising Text and Slogan 15 1.6. Conclusion 16 Chapter 2. Language of advertising 18 2Read MoreLanguage of Power in Advertising Essay2337 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction I will be looking into the language of power in advertising. The reason I have opted to investigate this topic is because advertising is one of the most powerful and persuasive formulas used in sales industries and many organisations to promote products constantly grabbing our attention. I will be looking at how the language and graphology they use to persuade and encourage readers. It’s remarkable how the majority of the target audience (depending what advertisement it is )Read MoreLanguage of Advertising: Nhs Smoke-Free784 Words   |  4 Pagestactics to scare the viewer into giving up their dangerous habit provoke a topic of conversation but are these extreme methods still not enough to get the message across? Over the years, it is apparent that adverts in general have adapted their advertising language by employing extensive methods of persuasion, instead of focusing on their actual product or purpose. Some may remember when the NHS health campaigns were exactly that; health campaigns, not commercials. Their primary objective was to informRead MoreAn Investigation Into the Language Used in Childrens Advertising4680 Words   |  19 PagesInvestigation into the Language used in Children’s Advertising Contents Hypothesis Introduction Methodology Analysis Conclusion Evaluation Bibliography Appendix Hypothesis In my investigation I am going to analyse the language used in children’s television advertising looking specifically at whether the language used is aimed primarily at the children or their parents. Introduction I have chosen to look at the language used in children’s advertising because I am interestedRead MoreThe Canadian Philosopher Of Communication Theory1533 Words   |  7 PagesThe Canadian philosopher of communication theory, Marshall McLuhan, once said that â€Å"advertising is the greatest art form of the 20th century†. Indeed, we are exposed to numerous advertisements every day. They come at us in many different forms and ways through TV screens, billboards, magazines, web pages, door-to-door sales, and even radio. Advertisements are not fundamentally bad, but a lot of them use manipulative tactic and tricks which influence us in ways we do not even realize. Even thoughRead MoreGetting to the Point (A Comparison of Rhetorical Strategies) Essay1163 Words   |  5 PagesGetting to the Point Advertising is all around us. Companies of all sorts rely heavily on internet, television, print, and various other types of media outlets as means to reach their audience. Advertising aims to bring in more customers and thereby, more profit. All of this is complicated by the fact that, out of the vast number of products and services available, companies want to prove that theirs are the best. From this is born the tricky and unique language of advertising. In their respectiveRead MoreThe Muted Group Theory Of The World Of Communication1627 Words   |  7 Pagesobligated to conform to dominant figures. In the world of communication, men seem to have more influence over women especially in linguistics. Not only is language an important aspect throughout this theory, advertising has remained a crucial part as well. Advertising depicts women and minorities to be mute throughout images, rather than language. It is important to understand Muted Group Theory when dealing with men and wome n and the power each gender has. Keywords: muted, men, women, theory, dominantRead MoreEssay about Comparison of Two Advertisements719 Words   |  3 Pagesof all, I will look at the history of advertising. Most historians believe that the first adverts were signs hung above shop doors in Babylon, now Iraq. This was as early as 3000 B.C. Many people could not read, so these early adverts were often symbols, for example a boot indicated a shoemakers shop. The first mass advertisement in Britain was in about 1472, after Johannes Gutenburg had invented movable type. It was a poster advertising the sale of a book, and was stuck

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Events of the French Revolution - 500 Words

Events of the French Revolution (Page 546-561) I. Background to the Revolution -1789: Beginning of the French Revolution -FR tried to create new political and social order -Population of 27 million was divided into 3 estates -1st estate: --130,000 people --Owned 10% of land --Exempt from taille -2nd estate: --350,000 people –Owned 25%-30% of land –Held many leading positions of military, government, law courts, and church offices –Exempt from taille -3rd estate: --Commoners –Majority of French population –Peasants made up 75-80% of third estate –Owned 35-40% of land –Consisted of craftspeople, shopkeepers, and other wage earners –bourgeoisie was 8% of population or 2.3 million people; 20-25% of the land -1787-1788: Bad harvests†¦show more content†¦The Move to Radicalism -Georges Danton led the Paris Communes and sought revenge on people who aided the king -Jean-Paul Marat published â€Å"Friend of the People.† -September 1792: National Convention began its sessions- Acted as ruling body of France -Convention : Lawyers, Professionals, property owners. 2/3 were under 45 years -September 21: National Convention was to abolish the monarchy and establish the Frech Republic -Convention members split into factions—Most important factions were Girondins and the Mountain (Both part of the Jacobin club) (they disputed) -The Mountain won in 1793 when it convinced the National Convention to pass a decree allowing Louis XVI’s death -January 21, 1793: Louis XVI was beheaded on the guillotine -Within Paris, National Convention did not rule all. French peasants would refuse to accept authority of National Convention -Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic took arms against France -1793 (spring): Coalition was poised for an invasion of France -National Convention gave broad powers to Committee of Public Safety (committee of 12)—Dominated by Georges Danton, then Maximilien Robespierre IV. The Reign of Terror to the Directory -During 1793-1794: The Committee acted to defend France from foreign and domestic threats -Reign of Terror: Revolutionary courts were set up to presecuteShow MoreRelatedThree Important Events During The French Revolution1201 Words   |  5 PagesWorld History 10/27/2015 â€Å"Three Important Events during the French Revolution† The French Revolution is known to be one of the major events in the world history. The revolution was led by some reformers in the government who demanded some changes in the political system. The purpose of the revolution was to eliminate the power of king and the rich people who owned most of the lands, and to have a government that is elected by the citizens. Although the revolution started as a movement for government reformsRead MoreThe French Revolution Was A Period Of Significant Events That Changed The Face Of France1320 Words   |  6 PagesThe French Revolution was a period of significant events that drastically changed the face of France, altering the traditions of government and culture. History throughout time has maintained a cause-and-effect pattern with nearly all crucial events; the French Revolution is no different. Lasting from 1789 until 1799, the revolution was partially carried forward from Napoleon during the expansion of the French Empire. 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However, it did end the supreme rule by French kings and strengthenedRead MoreComparing and Contrasting the American and French Revolutions805 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican Revolution began for two reasons: political and economic, while the French Revolution began with domination and mismanagement that contributed to the French society. During the Revolution many events occurred having a major effect, such as the sugar act, currency act, and the Townshend act. The French began the Tennis Court Oath, the Storming of the Bastille, and the overthrown of Monarchy. The French Revolution followed in suit with the American Revolution, because the French were in favorRead MoreDifferences Between the French and American Revolutions1362 Words   |  6 Pagesthe American and French Revolutions Sometimes a revolution can take place within a country against its own current state of government, other times a revolution can take place externally to rid a country of another countrys influence. There are many components that are involved in a revolution taking place. One must consider the causes or reasons of the situation, the events that occur during the revolution and the effects or aftermath that had been created by that revolution. There were majorRead MoreThe Debate On The French Revolution Essay1404 Words   |  6 PagesThe Debate on the French Revolution For the French Revolution, the historians are mainly entangled in the debate between two different interpretations. The Marxists recognize the French Revolution as the conflict between the old order (feudal system) and the modern society. On the other hand, the revisionists consider the French Revolution as essentially a political revolution, instead of a bourgeois revolution. From my perspective, the French Revolution is a combined consequence of both economicRead MoreThe French Revolution By Charles Dickens1499 Words   |  6 PagesThe French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. The King of France, Louis XVI was overthrown in a popular rebellion but France, was stricken by financial problems for over a century along with Great Britain. Charles Dickens showed comparison with the French Revolution in The Tale of Two Cities. This can be seen through the start of the French Revolution, life during the Revolution, how Louis XVI aff ected France, and crime and punishment throughoutRead MoreThe French Revolution And The American Revolution1184 Words   |  5 PagesA revolution is not an event that comes around every few years. In fact, for an event to be considered a revolution that event must bring about significant political, social, ideological, religious or even technological change. Throughout history there have been some very noteworthy revolutions such as the Agricultural Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution. Of all the revolutions in history, it is perhaps the French Revolution that remains the most romanticized in the mindsRead MoreDifference Between French Revolution And American Revolution1217 Words   |  5 PagesDifference between French Revolution and American Revolution Western Europe and the Colonies in the New World experienced major wars during the 18 century: the American Revolution (1775-1783) and the French Revolution (1789-1799), Both were inspired by the philosophy of the Enlightenment; both were the results of oppression the people had to suffer [at] the hands of their rulers. ..and [both] succeeded in toppling the monarchy Difference). Even though these two revolutions were similar in timeRead MoreThe French Revolution : A Stepping Stone Into The Future878 Words   |  4 PagesThe French Revolution: A Stepping-Stone Into the Future The French Revolution of 1789 started simple because a group, the National Assembly of France, acting as representation for the people of France, attempted to help the struggling peasants by limiting of the monarchy’s power. The result was complete chaos: The end of French monarchy, the death of the king and queen, the Reign of Terror and Napoleon Bonaparte’s rise to power (French Revolution). These events all played a role in setting the nation

An Outline of the Cell Theory Free Essays

string(162) " introduced to humans to replace the damaged bone marrow of some leukemia patients †¢Bone marrow transplants are one of the many therapeutic uses of stem cells\." Chapter 2 IB Biology 2. 1 Cell Theory 2. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on An Outline of the Cell Theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 Outline the cell theory (2). †¢All organisms are composed of one or more cells †¢Cells are the smallest units of life †¢All cells come from preexisting cells †¢TOK: cell theory replaces the former ideas of spontaneous generation or abiogenesis in which inanimate matter assembles itself into living forms †¢Exception: muscle cells- more than 1 nucleus, very long; (fungal cells) hyphae roots- not a single unit; protoctista- not specialized to single function; subcellular things like organelles 2. 1. Discuss the evidence for the cell theory (3). †¢Robert Hooke first described cells in 1665 while observing cork with a microscope he built. Coined the term â€Å"cell† Antoine van Leeuwenhoek observed the 1st living cells and referred to them as animalcules. â€Å"microscope† †¢In 1838, botanist Mathias Schleiden stated that plants are made of independent separate being called cells. Later, Theoder Schwann made a similar statement about animals. †¢The 2nd principle continues to gain support because we have not been able to find any living entity that is not made of at least one cell. Louis Pasteur in the 1860s performed experiments to support the last principle. After sterilizing chicken broth by boiling, Pasteur showed that living organisms would not ‘spontaneously’ reappear. â€Å"biogenesis† †¢Only after exposure to preexisting cells was life able to re-establish itself in the chicken broth. †¢Eukaryotes- mitosis; prokaryotes- binary fission; thus all cells have a common ancestor- original ancestral form 2. 1. 3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life (1). †¢Functions include: Metabolism- chemical reactions that occur within an organism †¢Growth- may be limited but is always evident in some way †¢Reproduction- hereditary molecules that can be passed to offspring †¢Response- to environment is imperative to survival †¢Homeostasis- maintain a constant internal environment ex: temp †¢Nutrition- provide a source of compounds with many chemical bonds which can be broken to provide the organism with the NRG and the nutrients necessary to maintain life CHNOPS 2. 1. 4 Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit (3). Cells- 100 micrometers (plant) †¢Organelles- lt; 10 micrometers †¢Bacteria- 1 micrometer †¢Viruses- 100 nanometers †¢Membranes- 10 nanometers thick †¢Molecules- 1 nanometer †¢Animal cell- 10 micrometers †¢cm = 10-2 m †¢mm = 10-3 m †¢um = 10-6 m †¢nm = 10-9 m †¢A = 10-10 m 2. 1. 5 Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification (2). †¢Magnification = size of image divided by the size of specimen †¢Magnification = measured length / scale bar level †¢Actual size = measured length / magnification 2. 1. Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size (3). †¢In the cell, the rate of heat and waste production and rate of resource consumption are functions that depend of its volume. †¢Most of the chemical reactions occur in the interior of the cell and its size affects the rate of these reactions. †¢The surface of the cell, the membrane, controls what materials move in and out of the cell. †¢Cells with more surface are per unit volume are able to move materials in and out of the cell, for each unit volume of the cell. As the width of the object increases, the surface area also increases but at a much slower rate than the volume. †¢This means that a large cell has less surface area to bring in needed materials and to rid the cell of waste than a small cell. †¢Because of this, cells are limited to the size they can attain and still be able to carry out the functions of life. Large animals have more cells not larger ones. †¢A large surface area to volume ratio means the cell can act more efficiently: for every unit of volume that requires nutrients or produces waste, there is more membrane to serve it. But this is not always an advantage- cell can lose heat quickly. †¢As organisms grow, cells divide. 2 small cells are more efficient than one. †¢Alveoli in lungs maximize surface for gas exchange. 2. 1. 7 State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties (1). †¢Different things come together to make process †¢Cells-tissues-organs-etc. †¢Ability to reproduce themselves. Allows possibility of growth and for replacement of damaged or dead cells. 2. 1. 8 Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others (3). Start out as single cell that reproduces at a rapid rate then the resulting cells go through a differentiation (different cells- different functions- to run an organism) process to produce all required cell types that are necessary for organism. †¢Every cell in a multicellular organism contains all the genes of that organism. However, the genes that are activated vary from cell to cell. †¢Differentiation- when we break something complex into its component pieces, they each appear to be simple. Combined, they can perform a whole new function. Cells within a multi cellular organism specialize their function. †¢Examples: muscles cells, cardiac cells †¢This differentiation process is the result of the expression of certain specific genes but not others †¢Genes allow for the production of all different cells in the organism †¢Each cell contains all the genetic info for the production of the complete organism †¢Each cell becomes a specific type of cell dependent of which DNA segment becomes active 2. 1. 9 State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways (1). Retain ability to divide and differentiate into various cell types †¢Embryonic stem cells retain the ability to form any type of cell in an organism and can even form a complete organism †¢When stem cells divide to form a specific type of tissue, they also produce some cells that remain as stem cells. This allows for the continual production of a particular type of tissue. †¢Pluripotent- give rise to any type of cell †¢Treating diseases? 2. 1. 10 Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells (2). †¢Replace differentiated cells lost due to injury Therapeutic cloning- implanted stem cells replace lost cells †¢Tissue- specific stem cells- these cells reside in certain tissue types and can only produce new cells of that particular tissue †¢For example, stem cells have been introduced to humans to replace the damaged bone marrow of some leukemia patients †¢Bone marrow transplants are one of the many therapeutic uses of stem cells. You read "An Outline of the Cell Theory" in category "Papers" Stem cells found in the bone marrow give rise to the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the body. These stem cells can be used in bone marrow transplants to treat people who have certain types of cancer. When a patient has cancer and is given high doses of chemotherapy, the chemotherapy kills the cancer cells but also the normal cells in the bone marrow. This means that the patient cannot produce blood cells. So before the patient is treated with chemotherapy, he or she can undergo a bone marrow harvest in which stem cells are removed from the bone marrow by using a needle which is inserted into the pelvis (hip bone). Alternatively, if stem cells cannot be used from the patient then they can be harvested from a matching donor. After the chemotherapy treatment the patient will have a bone marrow transplant in which the stem cells are transplanted back into the patient through a drip, usually via a vein in the chest or the arm. These transplanted stem cells will then find their way back to the bone marrow and start to produce healthy blood cells in the patient. Therefore the therapeutic use of stem cells in bone marrow transplants is very important as it allows some patients with cancer to undergo high chemotherapy treatment. Without this therapeutic use of stem cells, patients would only be able to take low doses of chemotherapy which could lower their chances of curing the disease. †¢Ethical issues- embryonic stem cells come from embryos obtained from labs doing IVF. involves death of embryo. 2. 2 Prokaryotic Cells 2. 2. 1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an example of a prokaryote (1). †¢Plasmid is circular thing not on diagram. Refer to book. †¢Size of cell: 1-2 um †¢Absence of membrane bound organelles Prokaryote examples: (look at notes for pictures) †¢straight rod- Escherichia †¢Club shaped rod- corynebacterium †¢Spore forming rods- bacillus †¢Coccus Staphylococcus 2. 2. 2 Annotate the diagram with the functions of each named structure. †¢Cell wall: Protects the cell from the outside environment and maintains the shape of the cell. It also prevents the cell from bursting if internal pressure rises. †¢P lasma membrane: Semi-permeable membrane that controls the substances moving into and out of the cell. It contains integral and peripheral proteins. Substances pass through by either active or passive transport. †¢Cytoplasm: Contains many enzymes used to catalyze chemical reactions of metabolism and it also contains the DNA in a region called the nucleoid. Ribosomes are also found in the cytoplasm. †¢Pili: Help bacteria adhere to each other for the exchange of genetic material. Involved in transfer of DNA in a process called conjugation (direct contact between bacterial cells in which plasma DNA is transferred between a donor and a recipient cell) †¢Flagella (singular flagellum): Made of a protein called flagellin. Helps bacteria move around (mobility) †¢Ribosomes: They are the site of protein synthesis. Contributes to protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA. free in cytoplasm (70s) †¢Nucleoid: Region containing DNA; involved with cell control and reproduction †¢Plasmid- small, circular DNA not connected to main chromosome; replicate independently of chromosomal DNA; not required by cell under normal conditions but it may help the cell adapt to unusual circumstances; normal to find at least one anti-biotic resistance gene within a plasmid †¢Slime capsule- sticky layer outside of cell wall, sticks cells together . 2. 3 Identify structures from 2. 2. 1 in electron micrographs of liver cells (2). 2. 2. 4 State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission (1). †¢Binary fission- simple division process in which DNA is copied and 2 daughter chromosomes become attached to different regions on plasma membrane and cell divides into 2 genetically identical daughter cell s. Process elongation of cell 2. 3 Eukaryotic Cells 2. 3. 1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell (1). . 3. 2 Annotate the diagram with the functions of each named structure. †¢Ribosomes: Found either floating free in the cytoplasm or attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria and chloroplast. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis as they translate messenger RNA to produce proteins. †¢Rough endoplasmic reticulum: Can modify proteins to alter their function and/or destination. Synthesizes proteins to be excreted from the cell. Lysosome: catalyze the breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbs, fuse with old or damaged organelles so recycling can occur, breakdown of materials that are brought in by phagocytosis †¢Golgi apparatus: Receives proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and may further modify them. It also packages proteins before the protein is sent to it’s final destination which may be intracellu lar or extracellular. †¢Mitochondrion: Is responsible for aerobic respiration. Converts chemical energy into ATP using oxygen. †¢Nucleus: Contains the chromosomes and therefore the hereditary material. It is responsible for controlling the cell. Extra: †¢Smooth ER- production of membrane phospholipids can cellular lipids, production of sex hormones, detoxification of drugs in liver, storage of calcium ions needed for muscle contractions, transportation of lipid based compound, to aid in liver in releasing glucose into bloodstream when needed †¢Centrosome- a pair of centrioles at right angles; involved in assembling microtubules which are important in providing structure and allowing movement and cell division †¢Vacuole- storage organelle; store potential food to provide nutrition, metabolic wastes and toxins to be expelled, and ater; enables cells to have a higher surface area to volume ratios even at larger sizes; in plants, uptake of h2o provides rigidity 2. 3. 3 Identify structures from 2. 3. 1 in electron micrographs of liver cells (2). 2. 3. 4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (3). Prokaryote Eukaryote DNA in a ring form without proteinDNA with proteins a s chromosomes/chromatin DNA free in the cytoplasm- no nucleusDNA enclosed within a nuclear envelope No mitochondriamitochondria 70S ribosomes80S ribosomes No internal compartmentalization to form organellesinternal compartmentalization present to form many types of organelles Size less than 10 micrometersSize more than 10 micrometers †¢also: unicellular vs. multicellular †¢no membrane bound organelles vs. membrane bound organelles †¢binary fission vs. mitosis †¢asexual reproduction vs. asexual and sexual reproduction †¢similarities: both cells have some sort of outside boundary that always involves a plasma membrane, both carry out all functions of life, DNA is present in both . 3. 5 State 3 differences between plant and animal cells (1). Plant Animal Outer cell wall with a plasma membrane just insideOnly a plasma membrane Chloroplasts No chloroplasts Large centrally located vacuolesNo vacuoles/ or small ones Store carbs as starchStore carbs as glycogen Do not contain centrioles within a centrosome areaContain centrioles within a centrosome area Fixed, often angular, shape because of a rigid cell wallCell is fl exible and more likely to be a rounded shape . 3. 6 Outline 2 roles of extracellular components (3). †¢The plant cell wall gives the cell a lot of strength and prevents it from bursting under high pressure as it is made up of cellulose arranged in groups called microfibrils. It gives the cell its shape, prevents excessive water up take by osmosis and is the reason why the whole plant can hold itself up against gravity. Prevents entry of pathogens. Allows turgor pressure/ high pressure to develop inside the cell. The animal cell contains glycoproteins in their extracellular matrix (ECM) which are involved in the support, movement and adhesion of the cell. Cell to cell interaction, strengthens plasma membrane, allows attachment between adjacent cells, directs stem cells to differentiate 2. 4. 1 Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes (1). 2. 4. 2 Explain how the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes (3). One area of membrane is water soluble and polar and is hydrophilic †¢The other area is n’t water soluble and is non polar- hydrophobic †¢These hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions cause phospholipids to always align as a bilayer if there is water present and there is a large number of phospholipid molecules †¢Membrane is flexible since fatty acid tail do not strongly attract one another †¢What maintains the overall structure of membrane is the tendency water has to form hydrogen bonds †¢In hydrophobic region (fatty acid tails) in animal cells these are cholesterol molecules- determine membrane fluidity (changes temp) †¢Proteins are embedded in fluid matrix of phospholipid bilayer (mosaic effect) †¢Integral proteins have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the same protein †¢Hydrophobic region (mid section of phospholipid membrane) holds protein in place †¢Hydrophilic region is exposed to water solutions on either side of membrane †¢Peripheral proteins do not protrude into the middle hydrophobic region but remain bound to the surface of the membrane 2. 4. 3 List the functions of membrane proteins (1). †¢Hormone binding sites- have specific shapes that fit shape of specific hormone †¢Enzymatic action- catalyze chemical reactions †¢Cell adhesion- proteins hook together to form connections †¢Cell to cell communication- provide identification †¢Channels for passive transport- high to low concentration †¢Pumps for active transport- proteins shuttle a substance from one side of membrane to another by changing shape; ATP 2. 4. 4 Define osmosis and diffusion (1). †¢Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Osmosis is the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration (hypo-osmotic solution to hyperosmotic solution). †¢Facilitated diffusion- involves a membrane with specific carrier proteins that are capable of combining with the substance to and its movement 2. 4. 5 Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion (3). †¢Simple diffusion- substances other than water move between phospholipids molecules or through proteins which possess channels †¢Facilitated diffusion- nonchannel protein carriers change shape to allow movement of substances other than water. No NRG. Polar molecules need help. †¢Substances that move passively across membrane are influenced by size and shape †¢Small substances and nonpolar move with ease; large, polar, or both do not †¢Channel proteins- create a hydrophilic pore in membrane through which small changed particles (ions) can diffuse into cell †¢Transport proteins- help move substances (glucose) into cell. Substrate binds to protein which carries molecules across membrane and releases it inside cell 2. 4. 6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes (3). †¢Active transport involves the movement of substances through the membrane using NRG from ATP. The advantage of active transport is that substances can be moved against the gradient, meaning from low to high concentration †¢This is possible because the cell membrane has protein pumps embedded it which are used in active transport to move substances using ATP †¢Each protein pump only transports certain substances so the cell can control what comes in and goes out †¢Transport or carrier proteins †¢Ex: Na +/ K + pump. Sodium moved out of cell, potassium moved in (important for nerve cells) 2. 4. 7 Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough ER, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane (3). †¢Materials are transmitted between rough ER, Golgi app, and plasma membrane †¢Nucleus contains chromosomes that contain genes for coding proteins. RNA passes from nucleus to cytoplasm †¢Rough ER contains ribosomes which make proteins intended for export †¢Protein goes into lumen of Golgi app for processing before it leaves through the cell surface membrane by exocytosis 2. 4. 8 Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and reform during endocytosis and exocytosis (2). †¢The phospholipids in the cell membrane are not solid but are in a fluid state allowing the membrane to change its shape and also vesicles to fuse with it. †¢This means substances can enter the cell via endocytosis and exit the cell via exocytosis. The membrane then returns to its original state. †¢In exocytosis the vesicles fuse with the membrane expelling their content outside the cell. The membrane then goes back to its original state. Endocytosis is a similar process which involves the pulling of the plasma membrane inward so that a vesicle is pinched off it and then this vesicle can carry its content anywhere in the cell. †¢Cell takes up substance by surrounding it with membrane, ATP †¢2 types: †¢pinocytosis (substance is liquid) †¢phagocytosis (substance is solid) †¢endocytosis and exocytosis- active transport that requires ATP; common in unicellular organisms Summary of processes: ATP requiredConcentration gradient Diffusion NoDown (high to low) Facilitated diffusionNoDown OsmosisNoDown Active transport with carrier proteinsYesAgainst is possible EndocytosisYesAgainst is possible 2. 5 Cell Division 2. 5. Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis, and cytokinesis (2). †¢The first stage of cell division is interphase which is divided into 3 phases; G1, S and G2. The cell cycle starts with G1 (Gap phase 1) during which the cell grows larger. This is followed by phase S (synthesis) during which the DNA is replicated. Finally, G2 (gap phase 2) is the second growth phase in which organelles increase in number, cell grows and preps for mitosis, DNA begins to condense form chromatin to chromosomes and microtubules begin to form. †¢? The fourth stage is mitosis, which is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During mitosis the spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes and pull sister chromatids apart, providing the same genetic material to each of these locations. This stage separates the two daughter genomes. †¢Finally, cytokinesis is the last stage during which the cytoplasm divides to create two daughter cells. In animal cells the cell is pinched in two to form a cleavage furrow while plant cells form a plate between the dividing cells. 2. 5. 2 State that tumors (cancer) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organ or tissue (1). †¢Proto-oncogenes are genes that produce proteins, which stimulate growth (cell division). If mutation occurs, a tumor will form. Mutations: radiation, viruses, chemicals that are carcinogenic, EM radiation 2. 5. 3 States that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication, and an increase in the # of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts (1). 2. 5. 4 Describe the events that occur in the 4 phases of mitosis (2). †¢During prophase, chromatin becomes chromosomes, nuclear envelope disintegrates, the spindle microtubules begin to form, centrosomes move toward opposite poles of cell due to lengthening microtubules. Each chromosome consists of 2 identical sister chromatids held together by a centromere. During metaphase, the chromatids move to the equator and the spindle microtubules from each pole attach to each centromere on opposite sides. †¢During anaphase, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart splitting the centromeres. This splits the sister chromatids into chromosomes. Each identical chromosome is pulled to opposite poles. Chromatids of each duplicated chromosome separate and bec ome unduplicated chromosome †¢During telophase, the spindle microtubules break down and the chromosomes uncoil and so are no longer individually visible. Also the nuclear membrane reforms. Chromosomes become chromatin (shapeless). Centrioles replicate in animal cells. The cell then divides by cytokinesis to form two daughter cells with identical genetic nuclei. 2. 5. Explain how mitosis produces 2 identical nuclei (3). †¢During prophase, the chromosomes become visible. The nuclear envelope disintegrates and the spindle microtubules grow and extend from each pole to the equator. †¢At metaphase the chromatids move to the equator. The sister chromatids are two DNA molecules formed by DNA replication and are therefore identical. †¢These sister chromatids are then separated in anaphase as the spindle microtubules attaches to centromere and pulls the sister chromatids to opposite poles. As the sister chromatids separate they are called chromosomes. This means that each pole has the same chromosomes (same genetic material). Finally the microtubules break down, the chromosomes uncoil and the nuclear membrane reforms. The cell then divides into two daughter cells with genetically identical nuclei. †¢4 chromosomes in parent cell = 4 chromosomes in each daughter cell †¢duplicated chromosome with 2 strands connected by centromere and chromosome is 1 strand 2. 5. 6 State that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction involve mitosis (1). †¢Growth- production of similar cells †¢Embryonic development- allows zygote to grow into multicellular organism †¢Tissue repair- wounds need identical replacement cells †¢Asexual reproduction- allows for a rapid and sig nificant increase in number of individuals How to cite An Outline of the Cell Theory, Papers

Battered Women Syndrome Essay Example For Students

Battered Women Syndrome Essay Battered Woman SyndromeIn Robert Agnews general strain theory, he talks about how strain and stress could cause an individual to commit crimes that they wouldnt have committed without those circumstances. In his theory, he refers to negative affective states, which are the anger, frustration, and adverse emotions that emerge in the wake of destructive social relationships. It is these negative affective states that are produced by strain. Agnew acknowledges that strain can be caused by negative situations, such as abuse or neglect, family conflict, or stressful life events. These situations can all be found to be extremely prevalent in households where domestic violence occurs. According to this theory, the negative stimuli presented causes, in this case, the woman to feel angry, frustrated, disappointed, depressed, and fearful. These negative feelings, in turn, are outwardly expressed through violence. In this paper, we will look at battered woman syndrome as a theory that has stemm ed from Robert Agnews general strain theory. In her 1979 book The Battered Woman; Dr. Lenore Walker first came up with what is now know as battered woman syndrome. Put simply battered woman syndrome, or BWS as it is sometimes called, is a group of psychological symptoms that are easily recognized in women who have been physically, sexually, or psychologically assaulted by their domestic partner. According to Dr. Walker, Battered woman syndrome presents evidence that the syndrome is part of a recognizable pattern of psychological symptoms called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported to be produced by repeated exposure to trauma such as the physical, sexual, and/or serious psychological assault experienced by battered women (Gelles 133). Because battered woman syndrome is considered to be in the same category as PTSD, it does not have its own classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-third edition, also known as the DSM-III. Instead it is jus t classified along with post-traumatic stress disorder. The American Psychiatric Association gives five criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD using the DSM system, 1. presence of a stressor that could cause a traumatic response (battering)2.symptoms lasting for more than one month3.measurable cognitive and memory least three measurable avoidance least two measurable arousal symptoms (Gelles 138). These five criterions are what doctors in the psychiatric field use to diagnose a woman with battered woman syndrome. In some cases, a doctors diagnosis comes into play in the courtroom. In most cases a doctors testimony is used to give an idea about the womans state of mind when she committed the crime she is on trial for. An example would be when a battered woman commits a crime against her spouse, and claims that her husbands abuse was what caused her to commit the crime in the first place, and a doctors testimony is used to explain the psychological effects that the abuse has had on her state of mind. Abuse plays a major role when crimes are committed against a spouse. Duttons research has shown that, Among women who are convicted of homicide against an intimate partner, a large percentage killed following physical, sexual, and psychological abuse toward them by their partner (112). Judy Ann Laws Norman is an example of a woman who was driven to kill due to the abuse she suffered from her husband. Judy Ann Laws Norman was married to John Thomas J.T. Norman for 25 years. He was an alcoholic who forced his wife to prostitute herself. She claims that if she did not bring home a minimum of $25 a day, he would beat her. When he beat her, he would use any and all objects he could find. Judy suffered many different forms of physical abuse at the hands of her husband. He used to put cigarettes out on her skin and throw food and drinks at her. In some cases, he would refuse to let her eat for days at a time, and at least once he smashed a glass in her face. Aside from these physical assaults, J.T. would often subject Judy to psychological torture. He would call her names like dog and whore on a regular basis. Sometimes he would force her to sleep on a concrete floor and also crouch down on the floor and eat pet food out of a bowl. J.T. also gave Judy reason to fear for her life. The records state, Norman often stated to both the defendant and to others that he would kill the defendant. He also threatened to cut her heart out (Gagne 55).

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Jim Crow Laws Essay Example For Students

Jim Crow Laws Essay #65279;Jim Crow LawsThe name for the Jim Crow Laws comes from a character in a Minstrel Show. TheMinstrel Show was one of the first forms of American entertainment, which started in 1843. They were performed by successors of black song and dance routine actors. The first MinstrelShow was started by a group of four men from Virginia, who all painted their faces black andperformed a small song and dance skit in a small theater in New York City. Thomas DartmouthRice, a white actor, performed the Jim Crow Minstrel Show. Rice was inspired by an old blackman who sang and danced in Louisville, Kentucky (Clay, 1). The skit ended in the same chorusas the old black mans song which was Wheel about and turn about and do jis so, Ebry time Iwheel about I jump Jim Crow. Rices song and dance got him from Louisville to Cincinnati toPittsburgh to Philadelphia and then to New York City in 1832. Finally, Rice performedthroughout Europe, going to London and Dublin, where the Irish especially liked Ricesp erformance ( In the north, slavery was just about non existent, so blacks could be seen free in a lot ofcities in the north. In some cities even, blacks and whites lived together without a problem sosegregation was not seen completely throughout America. Before 1890, segregation was notseen in most of the south, which was where 80 percent of the black population lived (Massey, 17-20). Segregation actually started in the north, but when it moved into the south, it becamemuch worse (Woodward, 17). It was thought that segregation came along with slavery, but therewere more reasons, like pure racism. Cities had ghettos where all of the blacks lived in acommunity, away from the whites. After slavery ended, the north did treat the blacks with morerespect, but not much more. In the north, slaves could not be separated from their families andthey could not be legally forced to work. Even though the blacks in the north were not slavesanymore, they were still treated poorly in some cases. Towards the end of the Civil War, thenorth was really showing their racism (Woodward, 21). Most hotels, motels and restaurantswould not let blacks inside, so shortly after the Civil Rights Act of 1875, the blacks tested theirrights on all sorts of public utilities. They did not, however, take advantage of these rights sothey would be assured to keep them. The south still treated blacks wit h disrespect. Even thoughblacks could be found in most northern cities, they rarely made up much more than 30 percent ofthe population of that area, so blacks were still mostly living in the south, where they were stillbeing treated poorly (Massey, 20). Even after slavery ended, whites, with the Jim Crow Laws, were still separatingthemselves from blacks with segregation. Jim Crow Laws were passed by many southern statesin the late nineteenth century. The laws stayed in effect from 1865-1950. The Jim Crow Lawsoriginated from a Minstrel Show character called Jim Crow, performed by Thomas D. Rice. TheJim Crow movement turned out to be the biggest influence that led to the immobilization of theAmerican black population. The laws were basically just a technique to get around the basicrights of blacks. It created, once again, a divisional racial system in the south. Cities nowneeded new and different systems to control the blacks and whites. One part of the Jim CrowLaws allowed the government to fully neglect the educational needs of black children, in fact, thelaws had the most effect on the education of black children. The schooling system made blackand white schools greatly unequal, and cultivated the educational needs of white childre n. Manyblack children were left uneducated due to these laws. The condition of black schools were overcrowded in run down buildings. There were enough schools for whites so they did not have thisproblem. The teachers in black schools were poorly trained and had to work with the lack ofsupplies they had, but white teachers were well trained and got money for supplies from thegovernment. Many black families were forced to move north to have hope of their childrenbeing educated. In the north, Jim Crow Laws were not as present and Massachusetts ended someof the laws before the Civil War ended. The term Jim Crow was used so often it became anadjective in the American language in 1838. The term is no longer used in the language though(Woodward, 7). .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .postImageUrl , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:hover , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:visited , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:active { border:0!important; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:active , .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub0812f8d26d2f492cf90323dd2cdec1d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Mind Of A Serial Killer EssayIn 1889, the Interstate Commerce Commission made railroads provide equal fairness toboth races. The same accommodations, however, were not required for blacks and whites. By1891, seven southern states passed laws that stated separate but equal railroad transportation. They wanted blacks and whites to ride in the same trains with the same treatment but theywanted them to be in separate railcars. The case was known as Plessy versus Ferguson. Theruling of this case was not equal in fact and it allowed the usage of more Jim Crow Laws. Somerailroads made blacks ride in second class even if they paid to ride in first class. Due to theruling of th e case of Plessy versus Ferguson, segregation laws soon made blacks use differentwater fountains, restaurants, recreational facilities and other things, than the whites( The Reconstruction Years was a time period after the Civil Rights Act of 1875 wasdeclared unconstitutional, where whites started treating blacks with more respect and equality. During this time, blacks and whites still did not interact with each other much but it was moreoften than before. They were now in direct competition with each other in the city. Large blackcommunities started springing up around America during this time. These new communitiescreated a challenge to the people that lived in southern states, and they had trouble controllingthem, unlike the ease they had controlling more rural blacks. Blacks and whites now used thesame utilities and facilities. Whites could no longer have their own restaurants hotels or waterfountains. Before these acts, blacks were no t allowed to vote. Massachusetts, New Hampshire,Vermont, Maine and Rhode Island let blacks vote in 1860. Only six percent of the blackpopulation lived in states that allowed them to vote because politicians believed blacks could notdeal with any political issues. After more blacks were allowed to vote, white politicians nowrealized that they needed black support. If the Jim Crow Laws were never passed, the black population would have grown morefreely faster and with much less hassle than they had to go through. The Jim Crow Laws shouldnot have been passed because they only delayed the freedom of blacks and hurt our nationsimage. Category: History